As a marketing term, ‘promotion’ is a company’s efforts to influence customers to buy. A company may have a fine product or service to offer and it may be priced correctly, but these won’t mean much unless it reaches its target market. Promotion, which aims to  reach the customers in that market and persuade them to buy, includes the elements of giving information and influencing customer behaviour. In other words, it includes all selling activities.

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The most important of these activities are personal selling, sales promotion, public relations and advertising. Most companies combine these  activities to communicate with their customers, but more money is spent on advertising than on other types of promotion. All of us have been influenced to buy certain products because of some form of advertising.


It is universally accepted that advertising conveys selling messages better than other techniques in certain situations. As a tool of marketing, advertising generally serves the following purposes: to persuade present customers to increase their buying, to slow down the flow of present customers away from the product and to increase the flow of customers toward the advertised product.

But  the overall purpose of advertising is to influence the level of product sales and, as a result, to increase the manufacturer’s profits. To determine the effectiveness of advertising, its results should be evaluated. A practical way to measure its effectiveness is through increased sales volume. Sales for a period of time following an  advertising campaign can be compared with those for a previous period.

Advertising can be classified into certain types, depending on its use and purpose. The first type is product advertising, which is designed to sell a definite and identified product. It usually describes the product’s features and good qualities and it may even emphasize its price. Product advertising is used to sell both consumer and industrial goods, which have different marketing characteristics.

The second type is institutional advertising. This type tries to create a favourable attitude toward the company offering to sell a product.  This type of advertising may not influence immediate sales but it tries to increase the sales in the long-run.

For example, a manufacturer may run an institutional advertisement to tell the public about the company’s efforts to reduce air pollution. Big companies can afford to spend money on institutional advertising. Another type of advertising  is national advertising, which is used to sell nationally distributed products by using a medium or nationwide circulation. It is generally associated with advertising by the manufacturer rather than by a retailer or local advertiser.

The fourth type is local advertising. It is placed by a local merchant and differs from national advertising by  being more specific in terms of price, quality and quantity. In national advertising, the purpose is to build a general demand for a product that may be sold in many stores. In local advertising, the stress is on the store where the product is sold.

Finally, there is corrective advertising, which takes place to correct specific false or misleading claims that  might have been made in previous advertising. These corrective advertisements are generally ordered by courts to rectify earlier misleading advertisements. For an advertising message to reach its audience, some type of carrier must be chosen. In the field of advertising, these carriers are  called ‘media’.

The success of advertising depends both on the message and the medium selected. The media most commonly used for advertising purposes are newspapers, magazines, direct mail, radio and television.

Television is a very popular medium because it has the advantage of combining sight, sound, motion and demonstration. And  for most viewers, it does all this in colour, which is a unique combination for advertisirm. Another advantage of TV is that it appeals to all age groups. On the other hand, its message is short-lived and production costs are high. Expenditures (or TV advertising are the second largest after the newspaper, which is the leading medium.


A. What do the following refer to?
1. ‘those’ (line 25):
2. ‘If (line 29):
B. Mark the best choice. 1. To convey (line 14) means to . a) change b) influence c) communicate d) combine
2. To rectify (line 51) means to . a) make a false claim b) correct c) advertise d) distribute
3. Promotion a) is having a fine and correctly priced product or service b) includes all selling activities c) is a very popular type of advertising d) is the most important activity of companies

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