The results of a study done in Japan showed that wives who did not smoke but were exposed to their husbands’ cigarette smoke developed lung cancer at a much higher rate than those whose husbands did not smoke. For them, the risk of developing lung cancer was directly  related to the amount their husbands smoked.

This was about one-third of the risk of developing lung cancer taken by smokers. This study strengthens the thesis that the effect of tobacco smoke on the non-smoker, which has been called passive, secondhand or involuntary smoking, may be a cause of lung cancer in the general population.

The study also strengthens the evidence which implies that passive smoking is a health hazard. A study published last year suggested that passive smoking might cause damage to the small airways in the lungs of non-smokers. Other studies have suggested that passive smoking  may worsen non-smokers’ pre-existing chronic heart and lung conditions.

Lung cancer is a major health problem throughout the world. It is estimated that in 1997, 122,000 Americans will be told that they have lung cancer. Moreover, only about 10 per cent of these will live another  five or more years because of the ineffectiveness of available treatments. The lungs are the leading sites of cancer in the U.S. among men who are  and over.

In women, lung cancer deaths are rising so fast that experts expect them to exceed breast cancer deaths by the middle of this  decade, becoming the No.l cancer killer of women. As evidence linking the rise of lung cancer with cigarette smoking has increased, many experts have theorized that passive smokers have a greater risk of developing lung cancer than those who are not exposed to smoke.

Such theories are based on the knowledge that second-hand smoke of cigarettes contains large amounts of toxic substances.


Mark the best choice.

1. Line 9, ‘involuntary smoking’ is .

a) the thesis which has been strengthened

b) the effect of cigarette smoke on non-smokers

c) the amount husbands smoke

d) one-third of the risk to direct smokers

2. Line 12, a ‘health hazard’ means .

a) a danger to health     b) a chronic heart and lung conditio    

c) damage in the small airways of the lungs d) a health problem that causes death 


3. Line 3, ‘those’ refers to .

a) smokers b) results of a study c) husbands d) wives

4. Line 24, ‘them’ refers to .

a) experts b) women c) lung cancer deaths d) leading sites

5. The results of the study done in Japan showed that .

a) lung cancer was seen more frequently among smoking wives than smoking husbands

b) non-smokers risked developing cancer three times more than smokers did

c) the risk for non-smokers of developing lung cancer depends on the amount of smoke they are exposed to

d) non-smokers develop chronic heart and lung diseases when they are exposed to smoke


6. In 1997, .

a) an effective treatment for cancer will be available

b) 12,200 Americans will die of lung cancer

c) 10% of the Americans with cancer will be cured

d) 122,000 Americans will be diagnosed as having lung cancer


7. Which of the following is not correct?

a) There is a strong relationship between passive smoking and lung cancer.

b) The toxic substances in cigarette smoke bring about lung cancer.

c) The number of patients suffering from lung cancer is likely to increase.

d) In the U.S. men younger than 35 are most likely to develop lung cancer.

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