Automation is a component of technology. Technology, on the other hand, is the application of science to daily life. Man lived hundreds of thousands of years without it, until the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth century. But 90 per cent of the people lived in poverty then.  Since the first Industrial Revolution, and during the present day ‘automation revolution’, the number of people who live in poverty in the industrialised countries has fallen to about  per cent.



Although technology solves many problems, it also creates many new ones. In the first place, new technology is necessary to correct the  harmful effects of previous technology; for example, if ‘after burners’ were made for automobile exhausts, air would be as clean as it was before the automobile polluted it.



Secondly, a new technology may be possible but not economical, as in the case of solar energy. Thirdly, nearly all forms of technology can be for the good of man. But unless technological advances are clearly understood, they can do more harm than good. This is also true for automation.


Furthermore, mass production techniques have produced a dependency on machines, which hasn’t been full recognized yet. Although living standards in the industrialized world are the highest in  history, much of industry has become dependent on automated machinery, and people have become dependent on its products, such as washers, dryers and automobiles.

1. When did man begin to apply science to daily life?
2. Are ‘after burners’ being used in automobiles at present?
1. Correct the statements below.
a) Only 20% of the people in the world are poor.
b) Solar energy is being used widely because it is both possible and economical.

2. Complete the sentence. Sometimes technological advances can be harmful. This may happen if
3. Line 18, ‘which’ refers to

4. How many disadvantages of technology are mentioned in the passage?

5. Mass production has affected the people wherever it is used. Which sentence below does not explain this idea?

a) Wherever mass production is used, people have become dependent on its products.

b) Mass production techniques have raised the living standards in the countries where they have been used.

c) Mass production techniques have resulted from a dependency on automation, which hasn’t been fully recognised yet.

d) Wherever automation is employed, it has created a dependency on machines.

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