The Amish are a special group of Americans: There are about 85,000 Amish people in the United States. The largest groups live in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Iowa and Illinois. The Amish people keep apart from the rest of the world. They live in their own groups; they have their own language and they don’t have any relationship with the outside world.
The nineteenth century brought about the greatest expansion of wealth the world had ever known. Its sources lay in the industrialisation of Europe and the techniques for assuring the continuance of this growth were by no means exhausted or compromised in 1900. There had not only been a vast and accelerating flow of commodities available only in (relatively) tiny quantities a century before, but whole new ranges of goods had come into existence.
HISTORY OF FARMING Knowledge of farming was brought into Central Europe by immigrants from the Middle East and appears to have spread widely and rapidly during 5000 B.C. This spread was encouraged by the presence of extensive areas of fertile soils which could be worked easily and successfully by the fairly simple techniques and equipment of the first fanners in Central Europe. Access to this desirable soil was made easy by the use of routes along natural waterways, such as the Danube and the Rhine.
JORVIK – THE LOST VIKING CAPITAL A thousand years- ago, York was one of the largest, richest and most famous cities in the whole of Britain. In the 10th century, it was described as being packed with a huge population, and traders from all parts, especially Danes. People called it Jorvik, and knew it as the capital of the North of England, and one of Europe’s greatest trading ports.
EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS The ancient Egyptian civilization, famous for its mighty pyramids, lasted for more than 3000 years. During this time Egypt was ruled by about at least 30 dynasties, ruling families of kings or queens. The pyramids were constructed as tombs, i.e., as burial places for the Egyptian kings and their families.
BLUE-JEANS It has been more than 140 years since Levi Strauss invented blue-jeans and they are still very popular today. Farmers and workers wear them to work in; children wear them to play in. Others wear them because they are comfortable. Before the 1950’s, blue-jeans were popular only in the West and Southwest. Today, almost everyone wears them. Americans buy about 500 million pairs of jeans a year.
– A LAND OF IMMIGRANTS – The USA is a land of immigrants. Between 1815 and 1914, the world witnessed the greatest peaceful migration in its history: 35 million people, mostly Europeans, left their homelands to start new lives in America. Why did these people risk everything by leaving their homes and families to see what the New World had to offer?
When the next Olympic Games begin, satellites will carry TV pictures of the opening ceremony to millions of people thousands of miles away. From their armchairs these people will be able to see their country’s athletes competing in events and maybe winning a bronze, silver or even gold medal. When we consider the size, the spectacle and the commercialism of the modem Olympic Games, it is difficult to remember that they started in Olympia in Greece in 776 BC with only one race, a sprint, for which the prize for the winner was an olive wreath. It was the birth ofOlympic Marathon .
The first art was produced in The Paleolithic Age .
– THE PALEOLITHIC AGE – Life in the Paleolithic Age was perilous and uncertain at best. Survival depended on the success of the hunt, but the hunt often brought sudden and violent death. In some instances, Paleolithic people were their own worst enemies.
– WHERE ARE WE GOING? – In 1829, when Stephenson entered his invention, the steam engine, for a competition, people were shocked to find that it was possible to travel at a dangerous speed of 36 m.p.h. There were many powerful opponents of the railway companies. Stage-coach owners, innkeepers and horse dealers all saw their means of living threatened by the new rival: the canal companies became aware of a powerful competitor.