Dreams have always held a universal attraction. A lot has been said and written about them. Although most dreams happen spontaneously, dream activity may be stimulated by external influences. ‘Suffocation’ dreams are connected with the breathing difficulties of a heavy cold, for instance.
Internal disorders such as indigestion can cause vivid dreams, and dreams of racing fire-engines may be caused by the ringing of an alarm bell. Experiments have been carried out to investigate the connection between deliberately inflicted pain and dreaming. For example, a sleeper hurt slightly with a pin perhaps dreams of fighting and receiving a serious wound. Although the dream is stimulated by the physical discomfort, the actual events of the dream depend on the associations of the discomfort in the mind of the sleeper.
A dreamer’s eyes often move rapidly from side to side. Since people born blind do not dream visually and do not show this eye activity, it is thought that the dreamer may be scanning the scene in his dream. A certain amount of dreaming seems to be a human requirement – if a sleeper is woken up every time his eyes begin to move fast, effectively depriving him of his dreams, he will make more eye movements the following night.
Of the many theories of dreams, Freud’s is probably the best known. According to Freud, in our dreams, we return to the modes of thought characteristic of early childhood. Our thinking becomes pictorial and non-logical and expresses ideas and wishes hidden deep in our minds.
Mark the best choice.
1. Line 9, ‘inflicted’ means .
a) caused . c) satisfied / b) noticed d) motivated
2. The first paragraph is mainly about .
a) the probable causes of * * * * *
b) the effects of dreams on the mind
c) some experiments on dreaming
d) the strangeness of our * * * * *
3. If a person is hurt slightly while sleeping, . •
a) he may have spontaneous * * * * *
b) his dreams are shaped by the effects of the pain on the mind
c) the pain will immediately stop the * * * * * activity
d) no connection can be observed between the pain and his dreams
4. People who are able to see .
a) dreaming in exactly the same way as blind people
b) need more dreaming than blind people
c) have eye movements during dreaming
d) require different reasons for dreaming
5. The fourth paragraph is mainly about .
a) the consequences of our childhood dreaming
b) Freud and the dreaming we had in early childhood
c) different theories on dreaming
d) the Freudian explanation of dreaming
6. Which of the following statements is true?
a) Our hidden wishes prevent dreaming activity.
b) Humans need a certain amount of dreaming.
c) Dreaming cannot be caused by physical discomfort.
d) The ideas of the sleeper have no influence on his dreamsing