– OUTWARD BOUND –
‘Outward Bound’ is an educational concept, i.e. idea, that has developed over the last 35 years. Thousands of people in many countries around the world know about it.
Outward Bound consists of many educational organisations in different parts of the world. These organisations use nature as classrooms. Outward Bound courses consist of a series of carefully planned but difficult physical activities. The purpose of the activities is to create confident students who are prepared to deal with danger, uncomfortable situations, stress, frustration, and challenge. Increasing a student’s confidence helps him to obtain the feeling of independence and gain the ability to deal with complex everyday life situations more easily.
The standard Outward Bound course lasts three to four weeks. During that time, the students live in the wilderness— an area of wild, rough land where no people live – and perform physical activities whose difficulty increases every day. The first few days are spent on physical exercises. In addition, the students are taught basic skills such as first aid (how to help people when an accident occurs), map reading (how to find the right way), compass reading (how to find the correct direction) and other similar activities. During the second part of the course, students learn how to climb rocks and mountains, how to use boats and canoes in rough rivers, and in some schools how to sail, ski and hike long-distances.
The first two parts of the course are done in groups. Members work together and help each other. In the third part of the course, students are sent out alone for three days to test their ability to live in the wilderness with only a few necessities like a box of matches, some pots and pans, a knife, a sleeping bag, a little water and very little to eat.
Who are the students of Outward Bound? They are both young people and adults, both men and women. The minimum age is 16 years. There is no maximum age. About 2000 of the 6000 people who complete the course each year are women.
Housewives, university students, professors, doctors, and lawyers are also among those who have taken part in the course. In recent years, special courses for the busy businessmen have become increasingly popular.
These courses last from five to ten days rather than the usual three to four weeks of the normal course. Not all students complete the Outward Bound course. Sometimes the physical challenges cause a lot of stress. Organisers of an Outward 6 Bound course tell their students before they start that they shouldn’t make a mistake because Outward Bound is not for everybody, and that the courses aren’t easy at all.
Most students who finish the course share a common experience. They are surprised that they have finished the course and experience a great feeling of success because they have been able to do the 4 impossible!
The Outward Bound experience makes them feel that they are better than they thought!
Mark the best choice.
1. Line 9, ‘frustration’ is probably .
a) a bad feeling c) a pleasant feeling b) a feeling of success d) a feeling of confidence
2. Line 39, ‘they’ refers to .
a) physical challenges b) organizers c) their students d) everybody
3. Which paragraph describes the activities that are done in Outward Bound courses?
a) Paragraph 2 b) Paragraph 3 c) Paragraph 4 d) Paragraph 5
4. Which of the following is true about an Outward Bound course?
a) Only men can take part in this course. b) People who are younger than sixteen cannot take part in the course.
c) All students are successful at the end of the course. d) Students first work on their own, then in groups.
5. Which of the following is true about an Outward Bound course?
a) The physical activities become more difficult each day. b) There aren’t special short courses for people who can spend only a little time outside the office.
c) Students needn’t be taught how to help people who have been injured. d) There are more women who finish the course than men.
6. Which of the following is not an activity in Outward Bound courses?
a) Reading a map. c) Reading books about the wilderness. b) Climbing mountains. d) Hiking long distances.
7. Which of the following is not mentioned at all in the passage?
a) The names of countries where Outward Bound courses are offered.
b) Examples of personal qualities that can be developed by taking the course.
c) The occupations of people who join the course.
d) For how long Outward Bound courses have been popular.