In early years of this century there was little specialization in surgery, i.e. cutting into a part of the body. A good surgeon was capable of performing almost every operation that had been devised up to that time. Today, the situation is different.

Operations that were  not even dreamed of fifty years ago are now being carried out. The heart can be safely opened and its valves repaired. Clogged blood vessels can be cleaned out, and broken ones mended or replaced. A lung, the whole stomach, or even part of the brain can be removed and still allow the patient to live a comfortable and satisfactory life.

Surgery operation


 However, not every surgeon wants to, or is qualified to carry out every type of modern operation. The boundaries of surgery have widened remarkably in this century. Its safety has increased too. Deaths from most operations are about 23% of what they were in 1910 and surgery has extended in many directions, for example to certain types of birth defects in newborn babies and, at the other end of the scale, to life-saving operations for old people.

Surgery operations
Nurse and Surgery


The hospital stay after surgery has been shortened to as little as a week for most major operations. Most patients are out of bed the day after an operation and may be back at 20 work in two or three weeks.

After bypass surgery


Mark the best choice.
1. Line 6, ‘Clogged’ means .

a) replaced b) broken c) removed d) blocked
2. Line 14, ‘they’ refers to .

a) the boundaries of surgery b) deaths after operations c) directions in operations d) most modern operations

3. Surgeons in the early years of this century .

a) could perform every operation known today

b) were less specialized than the modern ones

c) had to specialize more than the modern ones

d) were able to carry out heart operations

4. The second paragraph is mainly about .

a) the improvements in modern surgery

b) the importance of hospital stay after surgery

c) the percentage of operations in this century

d) the operations of the past and today


5. Which of the following is true?

a) In modern surgery all types of operations can be carried out by any surgeon.

b) Open heart surgery has been possible since the decrease in deaths from operations.

c) Even the removal of a major organ doesn’t prevent the patient from leading a healthy life today.

d) Today only one fourth of all patients who have operations recover.

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