A report recently prepared for a large international travel service and banking company found out that travel and tourism accounted for almost $ 2 trillion of the sales in 1987, making it the largest source of employment in the world. Personal travel constituted about two thirds  of this, leaving the rest for business and government travel.

The biggest spenders on personal travel were the US, Japan, Germany, Britain and France; and in most of these developed countries it was the third largest item of household spending after housing and food. Tour operators say the industry is experiencing “a second 10 revolution”.

In the first, Europe revolutionised travel with the cheap package holiday within the continent, which transformed many Mediterranean economies. More recently, tourists have begun to travel further away. Until the mid-1980’s, the market was limited to the rich on the one hand and the backpackers on the other.



Rising incomes and expectations have changed all that. Travellers who are tired of the Mediterranean or those who can afford second holidays in the winter expect the package holiday concept to be extended to intercontinental destinations. By chartering 500-seat jumbo jets and booking hotels and apartments in Florida and the 20 Caribbean, tour operators have made formerly luxury tourist spots available to a lower-income market.


Although this poses risks which developing countries have not faced before, the benefits are more immediately apparent. The Caribbean Tourist Association estimates that the industry now 25 provides jobs directly or indirectly for 330,000 people in the region. Others put the figure higher. Some estimates put Third World employment in travel and tourism at more than 50 million.

A. What do the following refer to?
1. ‘this* (line 5):
2. ‘if (line 7):
3. ‘those’ (line 16):
4. ‘the region’ (line 25):
B. Mark the best choice. 1. To account for (line 2) is to . a) prepare b) find out c) constitute
2. Line 14, ‘backpackers’ are . a) people who travel long distances b) travellers who are not rich c) tourists from the Mediterranean
C. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. In developed countries, more money is spent on personal travel than on business and government travel.
2. In most of the developed countries housing and food are the two largest items of household spending.
J. The cheap continental package holiday is the revolution that is being experienced now. 4. Since the mid-1980’s, only the rich have been travelling to intercontinental destinations. 5. Some tourists do not want to travel to the Mediterranean any more.
1. How did the cheap package holiday affect Mediterranean countries?
2. What have tour operators done to make it possible for the lower-income group to travel to luxury spots? a)

3. What is the benefit of travel and tourism for developing countries?

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